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About the city-- Xi'an

Geography and climate

Xi'an lies on the Guanzhong Plain in thesouth-central part of Shaanxi province, on a flood plain created by the eightsurrounding rivers and streams. The city has an average elevation of 400 metres(1,312 ft) above sea level and an annual precipitation of 553 mm (21.8 in). Theurban area of Xi'an is located at 34°16′N 108°56′E. The WeiRiver provides potable water to the city.


The city borders the northern foot of theQin Mountains (Qinling) to the south, and the banks of the Wei River to thenorth. Hua Shan, one of the five sacred Taoist mountains, is located 100 km (62mi) away to the east of the city. Not far to the north is the Loess Plateau.


At the beginning of Han Dynasty, PrimeMinister Zhang Liang advised the emperor Liu Bang to choose Guanzhong as thecapital of the Han Dynasty: 'Guanzhong Plain, which is located behind Xiao Passand Hangu Pass, connects Long (Gansu) and Shu (Sichuan). Land of thousandsmiles and rich in harvest can be found here, as if this place is belongs to thenation of the heaven.' ("关中左崤函,右陇蜀,沃野千里,此所谓金城千里,天府之国也") Since then, Guanzhong is also known as the 'Nation of theHeaven'


Xi'anhas a temperate climate that is influenced by the East Asian monsoon,classified under the K?ppen climate classification as situated on theborderline between a semi-arid climate (BSk) and humid subtropical climate(Cwa). The Wei River valley is characterized by hot, humid summers, cold, drywinters, and dry springs and autumns. Most of the annual precipitation isdelivered from July to late October. Snow occasionally falls in winter butrarely settles for long. Dust storms often occur during March and April as thecity rapidly warms up. Summer months also experience frequent but shortthunderstorms. Monthly mean temperatures range from around the freezing mark inJanuary to 26.6 °C (79.9 °F) in July, with an annual average of 13.7 °C (56.7°F). Extreme temperatures have ranged from ?20.6 °C (?5 °F) to 42.9 °C (109°F).


Climate

Xi'an has a temperate climate that is influenced by the East Asian monsoon, classified under the K?ppen climate classification as situated on the borderline between a semi-arid climate (BSk) and humid subtropical climate (Cwa). The Wei River valley is characterised by hot, humid summers, cold, dry winters, and dry springs and autumns. Most of the annual precipitation is delivered from July to late October. Snow occasionally falls in winter but rarely settles for long. Dust storms often occur during March and April as the city rapidly warms up. Summer months also experience frequent but short thunderstorms. Monthly mean temperatures range from around the freezing mark in January to 26.6 °C(79.9 °F) in July, with an annual average of 13.7 °C(56.7 °F). Extreme temperatures have ranged from ?20.6 °C(?5 °F) to 42.9 °C(109 °F)

Transportation

Xi'an has many areas that are easily accessible on foot. In many commercial, residential, educations zones in the city, especially in the shopping and entertainment districts around the Bell Tower, underpasses and overpasses have been built for the safety and convenience of pedestrians


Electric bikes are very popular[citation needed] among students and offer easy transportation in and around the city for many residents. Taxi services are numerous but many citizens of Xi'an still commute to work on one of more than 200 bus routes.


Metro

Main article: Xi'an Metro

Line 2 was the first to open, on September 16, 2011. Construction on Line 1 started on OctoberCurrently the metro system is designed with 6 lines.

30, 2008. Line 1 is currently expected to start operation on September 14, 2013.[16] The rest are planned to start in 2013 and to be finished around 2016.


Taxi

Taxis in Xi'an are predominantly VW Santana made in Shanghai, BYD Auto made in Xi'an, and Citroen made in Wuhan. Most, if not all, taxis in Xi'an run on compressed natural gas.


Rail

There are 6 passenger transport railway stations in Xi'an. Xi'an Railway Station, located just north of Xi'an walled city, is one of the eight major national railway stations, and the main railway transportation hub of Shaanxi Province. The new Xi'an North Railway Station, situated a few miles to the north, is the station for the high-speed trains of the Zhengzhou–Xi'an High-Speed Railway.


The city's other stations include Xi'an West, Xi'an East, Xi'an South, Sanmincun, and

Fangzhicheng railway stations.


Xi'an Railway Station covers 597 thousand square meters, has 5 passenger platforms, and 24 tracks. It provides 112 services to 80 000 people daily. There are services from Xi'an to Zhengzhou, from Xi'an to Lanzhou, from Xi'an to Baoji, and from Xi'an to Mount Hua. China Railway High-speed 2 now run an express services from Xi'an to Baoji and Xi'an to Zhengzhou; with a total running time to Baoji of under 90 minutes, and 2 hours to Zhengzhou. The Zhengzhou–Xi'an High-Speed Railway opened on February 6, 2010.


Expressways

Xi'an currently has two ring road systems, the Second Ring road and the Third Ring road which encircle the city. These ring roads are similar to freeways, except that there are traffic signals on the Second Ring road.

As a tourist city, Xi'an has built expressways to Lintong, Tongchuan and Baoji, with well-maintained roads to famous scenic spots in suburban counties and to the north slope of the Qin Mountains. Since its construction in September 2007, the Xi'an–Hanzhong Expressway connects Hanzhong and Xi'an through the Qinling. At 15 km (9.3 mi) long the Zhongnan Shan Tunnel is the longest tunnel in Asia.[citation needed]

China National Highway 210

China National Highway 211

China National Highway 312


Air

Xi'an Xianyang International Airport (airport code: XIY) is the major airport serving the city and is the largest airport in the northwestern part of China. The airport is located to the northwest of the city, between Xi'an and Xianyang. Chang'an Airlines and China Eastern Airlines are the main airlines using the airport.

International Routes: There are direct flights from Xi'an to many major cities in Asia,

including Bangkok, Fukuoka, Hong Kong, Osaka, Pusan, Sapporo, Singapore and Seoul and Taipei.

Germany's Fraport, the operator of Frankfurt Airport, has paid 490 million yuan to obtain a 24.5-percent stake in the Xianyang International Airport, offering opportunities to upgrade and expand the facility.


Culture

The culture of Xi'an descends from one of the world's earliest civilizations. The Guanzhong Ren (关中人/關中人) culture is considered the cultural antecedent of Xi'anese; their features are satirized as the "Ten Strangenesses of Guanzhong Ren" (关中十大怪/關中十大怪). Xi'an is also known for the "Eight Great Sights of Chang'an" (长安八景/長安八景), a collection of scenic areas in the region.


Qinqiang (Voice of Qin) is the oldest and most extensive of the four major types of Chinese opera. Also called "random pluck" (乱弹), Qinqiang is the main type of drama in Shaanxi province. As the earliest ancestor of Beijing Opera, Yu Opera, Chuan Opera and Hebei Opera, Qinqiang has developed its own system of unique vocal music, spoken parts, facial makeup, posture, role, category and acting. It can be traced to Xi Qinqiang (西秦腔, Voice of West Qin) in Qin Dynasty, and blossomed until Qing Dynasty, with direct influences on many branches of Chinese Opera.


Much like Beijing 798 and Shanghai 1933, Xi'an has an art district called Textile town (纺织城). The district is not an actual town but derives its name from the many textile factories built there since the 1950s.[citation needed] Today it is no longer a centre for the textile industry but a new art factory with 4 workshops in total. Since March 2007, more than 40 artists have taken a part in these workshops.

Xi'an is home to contemporary Chinese Stars such as Xu Wei, Zhang Chu, Zheng Jun.

Zhang Yimou and Gu Changwei are directors from Xi'an. Xi'an is also the only city in China to win the Golden Bear (Berlin Film Festival) twice. The first film is Red Sorghum and the second one is Tuya's Marriage. They are produced by Xi'an Filmmaking Factory (now called Xi'an Qujiang Filmmaking Group) and Xi'an Filmmaking company respectively.


Tourism


Because of the city's many historical monuments and a plethora of ancient ruins and tombs in the vicinity,[1] tourism has been an important component of the local economy, and the Xi'an region is one of the most popular tourist destinations in China.


Some of the most well-known sites in Xi'an are:

The Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang and his Terracotta Army are located 40 km (25 mi) to the east of the city centre, in the city's suburbs.The city is surrounded by a well-preserved city wall which was re-constructed in the 14th century during the early Ming Dynasty and was based on the inner imperial palace of Tang Dynasty.

The Bell Tower and Drum Tower, both are located at the city's central axis.

The city's Muslim quarter, which is home to the Great Mosque of Xi'an.

The Giant Wild Goose Pagoda and Small Wild Goose Pagoda are both spectacular towers and both are well over 1,000 years old and have survived great earthquakes. The former is next to a large square with the largest fountain in Asia which projects water high into the air, rising and falling in time to music during one of the daily performances (usually at noon and soon after sunset). They protected Buddhist writings in the past.

  • The Stele Forest is famous for its numerous historic inscriptions and stoneworks

  • The Famen Temple and its towering pagoda located on the city's outskirt

  • Xi Ming Temple

  • Wolong Temple at Kaitong lane

  • Xingjiao Temple at Shaolin Yuan (where Xuanzang's Tomb lies)

  • Jianfu Temple

  • Blue Dragon Temple

  • Wangji Temple

  • The Banpo Neolithic village is located on the outskirt of the city proper

  • The Qianling Mausoleum, one of the many Tang Dynasty era tombs located in Xi'an

  • The Shaanxi History Museum has a large collection of artifacts both modern and ancient.

  • Mount Zhongnan (终南山)

  • Mount Taibai

  • Mount Li

  • Huaqing Hot Springs (華清池), at the foot of Mt. Li, have a history of 6,000 years, the adjacent Huaqing Palace has a history of 3,000 years. Ranked among the Hundred Famous Gardens in China, it also has the status as a National Cultural Relic Protection Unit and a National Key Scenic Area.

  • Daming Palace National Heritage Park, site of the former royal residence of the Tang Dynasty emperors


Public

Xi'an Jiaotong University

Chang'an University (长安大学)

Northwest A&F University (西北农林科技大学)

Northwestern Polytechnical University (西北工业大学)

Northwest University (西北大学)

Northwest University of Political Science and Law (西北政法大学)

Shaanxi Institute of Education (陕西教育学院)

Shaanxi Normal University (陕西师范大学)

Xi'an Academy of Fine Arts (西安美术学院)

Xi'an Conservatory of Music (西安音乐学院)

Xi'an University of Arts and Science (西安文理学院)

Xi'an Institute of Post & Telecommunications (西安邮电学院)

Xi'an International Studies University (西安外国语大学)

Xi'an Jiaotong University (西安交通大学)

Xi'an Physical Education Institute (西安体育学院)

Xi'an Polytechnic University (西安工程大学)

Xi'an Shiyou University (西安石油大学)

Xi'an Technological University (西安工业大学)

Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology (西安建筑科技大学)

Xi'an University of Finance and Economics (西安财经学院)

Xi'an University of Science and Technology (西安科技大学)

Xi'an University of Technology (西安理工大学)

Xidian University (西安电子科技大学)


Military

Air force Engineering University (空军工程大学, 1999年由空军电讯工程学院、空军工程学院、空军导弹学院合编组成)

The Fourth Military Medical University (第四军医大学) [13]

The Second Artillery Engineering University of People's Liberation Army (解放军第二炮兵工程学院)

(PLA) Xi'an Telecommunication College (解放军西安通信学院)


Private

Shaanxi Institute of International Commerce (陕西国际商贸学院)

Xi'an Eurasia University (西安欧亚学院; University website)

Xi'an Fanyi University (西安翻译学院)

Xi'an International University (西安外事学院,University website)

Xi'an Peihua University (西安培华学院)

Xi'an Siyuan University (西安思源学院)